I was able to fix it. While troubleshooting, I didn't understand why forwarding to my server created a DNS Type A record that I couldn't edit (Address pointed to GoDaddy URL shortener).
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If you are forwarding a domain, the A record is required to be a certain IP address and cannot be edited. If you wish to change the A record, simply delete the forwarding command (the A record will then show a pencil icon for editing), You'll be able to connect directly to the hosting server by inserting that server's IP address.